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Department of Home Economics 
Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 



Soybeans and soybean products are receiving increased attention at the present 
ti:rze when the rationing of many of the protein-rich foods of animal origin has made 
us aware of the possibility of insufficient protein in our dietaries. 

This interest is highly desirable, since soybeans are such a valuable source of 
protein of superior quality, of calcium and iron, and of at least some of the members 
of the vitamin B complex. Soybeans also have a high caloric value due to fat con- 
tent and have a higher energy value per pound than the other more commonly U3ed leg- 
umes, with the exception of peanuts. 

Soybean products are sometimes called "diabetic foods" because they contain no 
starch. It should be remembered, however, that soybeans contain some- soluble sugars; 
in all about 10 per cent or more of the weight of dry soybeans is carbohydrate which 
the body can utilize. Even so, this is much less than the carbohydrate content of 
other beans and of wheat flour. 

Varieties of Soybeans 

There are two general types of soybeans, the field type and the edible or vege- 
table type, which differ greatly in palatability . As the name implies, the edible or 
vegetable varieties are more satisfactory for human consumption, although a few of 
the field soybeans are also palatable. Some of the vegetable types which are rated 
"very good" are Hokkaido, Willomi, Jogun, Imperial, andi Emperor. Among the field va- 
rieties that are satisfactory for edible purposes are the Illini and Manchu. 


Immature soybeans are very welcome as an early fall green vegetable. Soybeans 
are ready for table use as soon as the pods have completely filled out and while they 
are still green in color. This is in late August or in September, depending on the 
variety, the time of planting, and the season. Not all slants of the same variety 
mature at the same time, but usually the maturity of pods on a single plant is suffi- 
ciently uniform to warrant pulling the entire plant. The plants can then be taken 
to a shady place to pick off the pods. 

To make hulling easier, pour boiling water over the soybean pods and let them 
stand 5 minutes -in the hot water. Drain, and hull by breaking the pod crosswise and 
squeezing out the beans. Cook as follows: To 1 pt hulled beans, add 1 c boiling 
water and 3/k t salt. Cover and cook for 10 minutes after the beans begin to boil. 
Avoid overcooking. Drain, and season with butter or in any other manner desired. 
Soybeans of the vegetable type should still be bright green in color after cooking, 
and they will have a nutty texture. They do not soften like green peas but can be 
used in any of the ways that green peas or green lima beans are used. 


Green soybeans can be preserved by freezing, canning, or dehydrating, although 
at the present time freezing seems to be the most satisfactory method. (For direc- 
tions for freezing see University of Illinois Circular 510, "How to Prepare Fruits 
and Vegetables for Freezer Storage.") 

There is a difference of opinion with regard to the canning of soybeans. Some 
feel that the flavor of the green soybean when canned is not satisfactory, while 
others report palatable products. Soybeans should be packed hot after blanching the 

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shelled beans for 3 minutes in boiling water. Some authorities recommend the addi- 
tion of 1 t salt and from \ to 1 t sugar to each pint of green soybeans, U.S.D.A. 
Farmers' Bulletin No. Yj62 recommends using a pressure cooker at 10 pounds pressure 
for the following periods: pint Jars, 80 minutes; quart jars, 90 minutes; No. 2 tin 
cans, 70 minutes; No. 3 tin cans, 85 minutes. (Soaked mature soybeans can also be 
preserved for future use by canning in the uame way.) 

For the dehydration of green soybeans, it is generally agreed that % steam blanch 
ing of from 5 to 7 minutes before shelling is satisfactory. The shelled beans should 
then be dehydrated at a temperature of 150° F. for the first half of the dehydration, 
and at ll+5 F. for the remainder of the time. It will take from 6 to 9 hours for the 
r>roce3s, and the finished product will be hard and wrinkled but still green in color. 
(For more complete directions for dehydration see University of Illinois Circular 558, 
"Dehydrating Fruits and Vegetables at Home.") 


Cooking Dry Soybeans 

Method I . Soak 1 c dry soybeans in 3 c water overnight. Drain* and cook for 1 to ]£ 
hours in 3 c fresh water to which 3 t salt have been added. 

Method II . Soak beans as in Method I, cook in a pressure cooker at 10 lbs, pressure 
for 10 minutes in If c water to which If t salt has been added. 

The beans may be seasoned with either butter or meat and served, or they may be used 
in any of the dishes for which navy or lima beans are used. They are more nutty in 
texture, however, than ordinary beans. 

Roasted Soybeans 

Two methods for roasting mature soybeans are given below. The products in both 
cases are acceptable, but Method I gives more desirable results, since the products 
more nearly resemble roasted peanuts. The second method is included because of the 
ease of preparation and as a means of conserving fat. 

Method I , Soak dry soybeans overnight, or until completely swollen. Dry the surface 
between towels and dry in deep fat, a few beans at a time, for 5 to 8 minutes, depend- 
ing upon the size of the beans (temperature, 350° F.). When they are slightly brown 
and crisp, drain, salt, and use as salted peanuts would be used. 

Method II . Soak beans overnight. Dry thoroughly and roll in melted fat. Spread in a 
shallow pan and roast in a moderate oven (350° F.) until browned. Sprinkle with salt 
while still warm. 

Sprouting Dry Soybeans 

"Soybeans, like mung beans, can be sprouted in a flour pot, a sink strainer, or . 
any container that has holes in it for drainage and can be covered. Be sure the con- 
tainer is large enough, for the beans swell to at least six times their original bulk 
as they sprout. Soak overnight, and next morning put the beans in the container, 

*To save nutrients, mild- flavored soybeans may be cooked in the water in which they 
were soaked. 

Soybean Sandwich Filling 
1 c chopped cooked soybeans { t salt 
$ c chopped olives or pickles 2 T mayonnaise 

1 t chopped green onion 

Blend the ingredients to the proper consistency for spreading. Serve the sandwiches 
either toasted or plain. Yield: k large sandwiches. 

Soybean Drop Cookies 

2 3/lic flour 2 eggs 

4 t salt 2 3/5 c soybean pulp 
k t baking powder (cooked and ground) 

1 c fat 1/3 c milk 

1 2/3 c sugar 1 t lemon flavoring 

Sift together the flour, salt, and baking powder. Cream the fat and sugar. Add 
beaten eggs and soybean pulp. Add milk and sifted dry ingredients alternately. Drop 
by teaspoonfuls on a greased baking sheet and bake 10 to 15 minutes in a hot oven 
(^00 F.). For variety If c raisins or 1 c nuts may be added to this recipe. One- 
third less shortening may be used if a plainer cooky is desired. This amount makes 
7 dozen small cookies. 


Soybean flours will probably be found on the market more generally in the near 
future them they have been in the past, and homemakers are advised to take advantage 
of the opportunity to use them. These flours are considered an especially valuable 
supplement to wheat flour, since they enhance the nutritive value of baked products 
from the standpoint of protein, minerals, and certain members of the vitamin B complex. 

At the present time millers are preparing three types of soybean flour, which 
differ in fat content. One type contains all the fat found in the original soybean 
and is known as high-fat or full-fat flour. There are also two low- fat flours from 
which different amounts of fat have been removed. Because of these differences and 
the fact that soybean flour contains little or no starch and no gluten, it is wise to 
use recipes that are developed for soybean flour if any appreciable amount is to be 
incorporated. A small amount of flour can be added to many recipes (up to 2 T soybean 
flour to Ik T wheat flour) without altering the other ingredients, but above this 
amount a special recipe should always be used. The following recipes include direc- 
tions for incorporating from 15 to 100 per cent soybean flour. 

Soybean flour can be used as a meat extender, in gravies, soups, and sauces, and 
in a variety of baked products. When substituted for part of the wheat flour in a 
recipe, soybean flour has the advantage of giving a product which tends to brown more 
readily and will keep fresh for a longer time. Soybean flour also improves the crust 
of breads and causes them to toast even better than usual. 


cover, and leave them in a warm place. Flood with lukewarm water at least four or 
five times each day during the sprouting period. In h to 6 days the sprouts will be 
2 to 3 inches long. Then they should be kept in a cool place, just as any fresh vege- 
table." (U.S.D.A. Leaflet No. 166, Soybeansfor the Table.) 

Some authorities are recommending the use of chlorinated lime (calcium hypochlo- 
rite) during the sprouting period to discourage the growth of mold and bacteria. The 
amounts suggested range from £ to 1 t per gallon of water. This chlorinated water 
should be used for the last sprinkling each day, and at other times plain water should 
be used. It has also been found that the soybeans should be kept away from the light- 
while sprouting or they will develop an undesirable color • The first requisite for 
soybeans to be sprouted is a variety that will germinate readily. 

\jJnji^^ Illinois Baked Soybeans 

r!/*' - ^^^^L S 3 c cooked soybeans 5 T molasses 

\)*l ^jrf&id 5 / 8 t mustard i c boiling water 

a^j V&J^h 1 t salt | c chili sauce 

l/8 t pepper { lb diced salt pork 

Combine thoroughly, in a baking dish, all the ingredients except salt pork. Cook the 
salt pork in a frying pan until delicately browned. Add the melted fat to the beans 
and place the squares of pork on top. Bake at 350° for 1 J>/k to 2 hours. 

Baked Soybeans Croquettes 
2 T minced onion 5 T flour 

li c celery, diced 2 T fat 

1$ t salt 3 c soybean pulp 

1 c tomato puree (cooked and ground) 

Add mino$d onion, celery (tough celery should be parboiled), and salt to tomatoes and 
bring to a boil. Mix the flour and fat together, add the boiling tomato puree, and 
cook to a thick paste. Cool, and add soybean pulp. Shape into croquettes; roll in 
corn flakes. Dip in egg and milk mixture and roll again in corn flakes. Place on a 
greased sheet and bake in a hot oven (UlO° F.) for 20 to 30 minutes. Yield: 10 to 12 

Cottage Cheese Soybean Loaf 

2 c roasted soybeans 1 egg, slightly beaten 
1 T chopped onion 1 T fat 
1 c cottage cheese f t salt 
1 c soybean pulp 1 t poultry seasoning 

(cooked and ground) Pepper 

1 c milk 

Combine ingredients and bake in a greased loaf pan in a moderate oven (350° F.) for 
30 minutes. Yield: 6 servings. 

Soybean Loaf 

k c cooked soybeans 1 T poultry seasoning 

1 c dry bread crumbs 1 c milk (more, if needed) 

2 T peanut butter \ t pepper 

Grind soybeans coarsely and combine with other ingredients. Add enough milk to mois- 
ten. Bake in a moderate oven (350° F.) for 30 minutes. The peanut butter may be 
omitted from this recipe if so desired. Yield: 6 to 8 servings. 

Soybean Flour Yeast Bread 
1 c akimmed milk 1 3A % salt 

1 cake compressed yeast 3 to J£ c soybean flour mix- 

2 T sugar ture prepared as follows: 
li T fat Mix i c soybean flour with 
2 T water 3 c white flour {^id use 

amount needed to make a 
smooth, tender dough. 

Scald milk and add salt, shortening, and sugar. Cool to room temperature. Soften 
yeast in the water and add to the cooled milk. Add about 2 c of the flour mixture 
and beat until smooth. Add enough flour to make a soft dough. Turn out on floured 
board and knead until the dough is smooth and elastic, adding only enough flour mix- 
ture to prevent sticking. Put in a greased bowl; brush top with melted fat. Cover, 
and let rise until trebled in bulk (about 2 hours). Punch down and let rise until 
double in bulk (about 1 hour) . Shape into a loaf and let rise in a greased pan until 
double in volume (about 1 hour). This amount of dough will fill a pan k X 9 X 3 
inches, and the dough should rise to 5/8 inch above the edge of the pan before it Is 
placed in the oven. Bake for 50 minutes in a moderate oven (375° F.). 

Soybean Flour Rolls 

2 c milk, scalded k to 5 c soybean flour mix- 
u: c water ture prepared as follows: 

l^cake yeast Mix 1 c soybean flour with 

Is t salt k c white flour and use 

k T shortening amount needed to make a 

k T sugar smooth, tender dough. 

Use the same method as for yeast bread. Shape into the desired forms, brush tops of 
rolls with melted fat, and let rise until double in volume. Bake at 385° F. for about 
15 minutes. Yield: 30 to % small rolls. 

Soybean Flour Applesauce Cake 

2 c fat £ c soybean flour 

1 c sugar l£ c white flour 

1 e gg £ t salt 

3A c thick applesauce l£ t baking powder 

(unsweetened) 1/3 t soda 
5 t nutmeg 

Cream fat and sugar. Add beaten egg and applesauce to which the nutmeg has been 
added. Stir in the sifted dry ingredients. Bake as a layer cake for ko to 50 minutes 
in a moderate oven (350° F,). Serves 10 to 12 persons. 


Soybean Flour Chocolate Cake 

2 c fat 2 squares chocolate 

1 c sugar xi c cake flour 

2 eggs -| c soybean flour 
2 t salt %/k c t 2 T milk 
2 t baking powder \ t vanilla 

t t soda 

Cream the fat, sugar, and vanilla. Add beaten eggs; add melted chocolate. Sift the 
dry ingredients and add alternately with the milk. Bake in a shallow pan (8x8 
inches) in a moderate oven (365° F.) for 25 to 30 minutes. 


l/3 c cake flour 
l/3 c soybean flour 
\ t baking powder 
l/3 c shortening 



2 sq (oz) chocolate 

1 c sugar ^^\» 

2 eggs 

l^t vanilla 

\ c chopped nuts 

Cream chocolate, shortening, and vanilla. Combine sugar and beaten eggs; add the 
chocolate mixture and beat well. Add Sifted dry ingredients and nuts. Bake in a 
greased pan (3x8 inches) in a moderate oven (350° F.) for about 30 minutes. Out 
in squares, 

l/3 c of soybean flour can be used instead of the cake flour (making a total of 2/3 c 
soybean flour) if so desired. 


There are otl\er forms in which soybeans can be utilized as human food. Some 
processors of soybeans are now preparing soybean grits and flakes, and there is prom- 
ise that they will be on the retail market iq the near future. These products are 
similar to soybean flout but are not so finely ground. The soybean grits usually re- 
semble coarse corn grits but are sometimes pulverized to resemble corn meal. The 
flakes are similar but are flat in shape. 

Soybean grits and flakes can be used as cereals, in baked products where a crisp 
texture is desirable, or as meat extenders. The greatest difference in the behavior 
of the two products is that of liquid absorption. The soybean grits tend to absorb 
more liquid than the flakes, and therefore an adjustment must be made in the recipe 
when using these products. 

Cinnamon Cookies 
(Using soybean grits or flakes) 
3 A c cake flour 1 t cinnamon 

and -r c shortening 

3 T soybean grits i c sugar 

or ft vanilla 

1 c cake flour • 1 egg 

and 1/8 t salt 

4* c soybean flakes 1 t baking powder 

Cream the shortening and sugar. Add the vanilla. Sift the dry ingredients and com- 
bine with the soybean grits or flakes. Add the dry ingredients alternately with the 
beaten egg to the creamed mixture. Drop by teaspoonfuls on a greased cooky sheet. 
Bake in a moderate oven (375° F.) for about 10 minutes. Yield: 2 dozen cookies. 

t t 

k c 

Apple Crisp 
(Using soybean grits or flakes) 
c sugar 2/3 c brown sugar 

cinnamon 4 c flour 

apples 6 T soybean grits or flakes 

u c butter 

Combine sliced apples, sugar, and cinnamon, and place in a shallow pan. Mix brown 
sugar and flour and work butter into mixture until a crumbly mixture is formed. 
Sprinkle this mixture over the apples. Bake in a hot oven (i+00 o F.) for 20 to 25 
minutes, Yield: 6 to 8 servings. 





Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home 
Economics: University of Illinois College of Ag- 
riculture, and the United States Department of Ag- 
riculture cooperating. H. P. Rusk, Director. Acts 
approved "by Congress Kay 8 and June 30, 191^ 

Brief of "Ways of Using Soybeans As Food," 

18 pp. mimeo (EEE 22h) , 

Evelyn Chambers Faulkner, Instructor in Home Economics